Exendin-4 Used in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes and Current Approaches for Alternative Administration Routes of Exendin-4
Merve ÇELİK TEKELİ*°, Yeşim AKTAŞ**, Nevin ÇELEBİ***
* ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5234-8434, Erciyes Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 38238, Kayseri
** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3427-6078, Erciyes Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 38238, Kayseri
*** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-6402-5042, Başkent Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 06790, Ankara
º Corresponding Author: Merve ÇELİK TEKELİ
Tel: +90 352 207 66 66 / 28381, Fax: +90 352 437 91 69,
Diabetes is a chronic disease due to impaired glucose metabolism and usually presents with uncontrolled hyperglycemia or persistently high blood sugar levels. According to the tenth edition of the International Diabetes Federation, 10% of global health expenditures ($ 966 billion) are spent on diabetes. In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is 15%, showing the fastest increase among European countries. Type 2 diabetes is associated with abnormal insulin secretion or chronic insulin resistance, causing desensitization of the glucose uptake cells to insulin activity. Incretin-based therapies have come to the fore in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes in recent years. Exendin-4, which is widely used in incretin-based therapies, binds to GLP-1 receptors with high affinity, causing glucose-dependent insulin secretion in the body, delaying gastric emptying, suppressing glucagon release and appetite. Also, exendin-4 increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptotic pathways in β-cells. Commercial products of exendin-4 are Byetta® which is administered twice daily and long-acting Byderuon™ which is administered once weekly via parenteral route. The presence of drawbacks of parenteral administration such as problems in patient compliance and feeling of pain due to injection led researchers to search alternative administration routes such as oral, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular, nasal, vaginal and rectal routes. In this review, exendin-4’s properties, mechanism of action, therapeutic efficacy, new approaches and studies on alternative delivery routes of exendin-4 are mentioned.
Key Words: exendin-4, diabetes, oral route, pulmonary route,transdermal route, nanocarriers
Process Validation in Pharmaceutical Industry and Quality by Design (QbD) Approach
Filiz OZUL*, Kübra Rabia CAN**, Serkan BİLGİÇ***, Sevda ŞENEL****, º
* ORCID: 0000-0002-2791-0616, Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency, Head of Inspectorate , 06520-Ankara, Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0001-7392-9775, Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency, Head of Inspectorate, 06520-Ankara, Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-8781-1399, Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency, Head of Inspectorate, 06520-Ankara, Turkey
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-1467-3471, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 06100-Ankara, Turkey,
º Corresponding Author: Sevda ŞENEL
Phone: +90 312 310 12 41
Process validation, which is defined as documented evidence that the process, operated within established parameters, can perform effectively and reproducibly to produce a medicinal product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes. In the last decade, continuous process verification has been introduced, which is based on a continuous monitoring of manufacturing performance. This approach is based on the knowledge from product and process development studies and/ or previous manufacturing experiences. Continuous process verification may be applicable to both a traditional and enhanced approach to pharmaceutical development. Process validation incorporates a lifecycle approach linking product and process development, validation of the commercial manufacturing process and maintenance of the process in a state of control during routine commercial production. Many pharmaceutical companies are adopting the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing, which enables enhanced process understanding, and a more systematic and scientific approach to pharmaceutical development, so that better controls can be implemented. QbD is considered in examining validation within a product lifecycle framework. In this review, after reviewing the process validation approaches that are described in the current national and international guidelines, the focus will be on QbD and its significance in process validation.
Key Words: Drug production, Process validation ,Quality by Design (QbD) ,PAT ,Continuous process verification
Fabrication and Evaluation of Cationic Charged Magnetic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Gene Delivery
Hasan AKBABA*°, Gülşah EREL-AKBABA**, Ayşe Gülten KANTARCI***
* ORCID: 0000-0001-9273-6346,Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, İzmir, Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0003-3287-5277, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, İzmir, Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-8813-5353, Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, İzmir, Turkey
° Corresponding Author; Hasan AKBABA
Tel. +90 5354026155, e.mail: email@example.com
Magnetofection; represents nucleic acid delivery by using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under the influence of a magnetic field; gives promising results for gene delivery. However, pharmaceutical and biomedical studies in this area are very limited. To meet this need, we aimed to develop an effective magnetic gene delivery system in this study. The in-situ surface coating method was handled to develop cationic charged MNPs. Three different MNP formulations were obtained and investigated in terms of characterization, DNA binding, protection, and transfection ability. According to the results, the obtained MNPs have particles under 150 nm with a low PDI (<0.3), and positive zeta potential with a spherical shape. The DNA binding and protecting ability from nucleases were shown by agarose gel studies. No significant cytotoxicity was observed on COS-7 cells in the concentration range of 4-20 µL/well. Moreover, transfection studies revealed that the optimal system (GMS-MNP-1) showed significantly higher transfection efficacy comparing the naked plasmid or non-magnetic version of nanoparticle under a magnetic field (p>0.05). Promising results have been obtained with the use of obtained GMS-MNPs in terms of magnetic gene delivery. This work can be extended to in vivo by using disease-specific therapeutic genetic materials.
Key Words: Gene delivery, magnetofection, cytotoxicity, transfection
Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of Novel Benzimidazole, Benzothiazole, Benzofurane, and Naphtofurane Derivatives of Aminothiazoles
Zafer ŞAHİN*°, Büşra Işıl TOK**, Erol AKGÜN***, Ayşegül ÇAŞKURLU****,
Leyla YURTTAŞ*****, Barkın BERK******, Şeref DEMİRAYAK*******
* ORCID: 0000-0002-5976-676X, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, 34815
** ORCID: 0000-0002-1619-1732, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, 34815
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-7391-6157, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, 34815
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-7277-920X, Department of Pharmacognosy, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, 34815
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-0957-6044, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey, 26210
****** ORCID: 0000-0001-6047-2796, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey, 34815
******* ORCID: 0000-0002-0841-1299, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey
° Corresponding Author;Zafer Şahin
Tel. +90 2166815100,
e.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
The thiazole ring is the core of bioactive molecules that generate broad activity. These activities include anticonvulsant,
antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antiviral, etc. In this work, starting from seconder/cyclic amines, new compounds containing thiazole and benzimidazole/benzothiazole/benzofurane/naphtofurane rings were synthesized, and their antimicrobial effects were evaluated. 9 compounds were synthesized by converting the seconder and cyclic amines to thiourea, and continued by thiazole ring closure. Ring closure was achieved by methylene-carbonyl condensation except conventional methods. Compound characterization was realized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR and HRMS. Compounds did not show significant activity on bacterial strains. Nine aminothiazole derivatives have been synthesized successfully. Compounds did not show important antibacterial activity and thus were evaluated as inactive.
Key Words: antibacterial, aminothiazole, benzothiazole, benzofurane, naphtofurane
A Cosmetic Nanoemulsion Against Seborrheic Dermatitis: Development, Characterization and Effectiveness
Feda DALO*, Fatma Gülgün YENER**°, Ebru ALTUNTAŞ***, Sibel DÖŞLER****
* ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4113-4596, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey,
** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-7234-0034, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey,
*** ORCID ID: 0000-0003-2902-5554, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey,
**** ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5223-4755, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Istanbul, Turkey,
° Corresponding Author; Fatma Gülgün Yener
Tel. +90 212 440 02 91, Fax: +90 212 440 02 52,
In this study, it was aimed to develop a topically applicable nanoemulsion (NE) that is expected to have an ameliorating effect in seborrheic dermatitis (SD). The main purpose of the formulation is to eliminate the disease factor, to repair the damage caused by the disease on the skin and to smooth the skin appearance by moisturization. For this reason, in vitro antimicrobial effect and in vivo effectiveness of the formulation were tested. For this aim; essential oils from tea tree, sage, cinnamon, oregano; extracts from Aloe vera, colloidal oatmeal, liquorice; vegetable oils from grape seed and sesame, and honey were used in a NE formulation. The NEs were prepared by ultrasonication method. Preliminary stability tests were applied to all formulations and then, pH, conductivity, viscosity, average droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential measurements were taken on the selected NEs for 3 months. Finally, the antimicrobial effect and in vivo effectiveness of the optimum NE were tested. The average droplet size, PDI, and zeta potential value of the optimum formulation (F6P2) were 108.40 ± 0.90 nm, 0.195 ± 0.07, and -21.40 ± 1.45 mV, respectively. As a result, the moisture content of the skin increased significantly (p < 0.001), the sebum and redness values significantly decreased (p = 0.008 and 0.001, respectively) and there was no significant change in the pH of the volunteers’ skin. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the optimum NE formulation developed in this study may be beneficial as a supplement for patients with SD.
Key Words: Seborrheic dermatitis, nanoemulsion, herbal cosmetic, efficacy tests, essential oils, plant extracts, vegetable oils, honey
Digital Data Security Awareness: A Study with Pharmacy Students
* ORCID ID: 0000-0002-3085-1178, Izmir Katip Celebi University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Management, Izmir, Turkey.
° Corresponding Author;Nilay Tarhan
Tel. +90 232 329 35 35 /6121, e.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Technological developments lead to changes in the field of health as well as in many areas. Although these developments bring many advantages, there are also some potential risks. Increments in digital healthcare and digitally stored information raise concerns about data security. It is vital for pharmacists and pharmacy students to be aware of data security, considering patient rights and ethical principles. This study investigates the digital data security awareness of pharmacy students and the effects of some variables on it. In this context, a questionnaire was applied to pharmacy students, including the “Digital Data Security Awareness Scale” developed by Yılmaz, Şahin, & Akbulut (2015). Firstly, exploratory factor analysis was performed on the data obtained, and then the effects of some variables on digital data security awareness were investigated via t-test and analysis of variance. Digital data security awareness is found to be higher in those who have an antivirus program on their smartphones. Additionally, it was determined that the mean of the responses given by the students to the statements on the scale was around three. As a result, the awareness of pharmacy students on this issue needs to be improved.
Key Words: Data security, pharmacy practices, ethics
Studying the Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid Against High Glucose-Associated Toxicity in H9C2 Cardiomyocytes
Elham KESHAVARZI*, Azadeh AMINZADEH**,***,°
* Student Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
** ORCID: 0000-0001-8293-1180 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
*** Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
° Corresponding Author; Azadeh AMINZADEH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Pharmacology,
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
Tel: +98-34-31325247, Fax: +98-34-31325003, e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Diabetes mellitus leads to an increased risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that high glucose (HG) can promote massive apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Oxidative stress has been known as main factor responsible for HG-induced apoptosis. Ellagic acid, a natural phenolic compound, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and antioxidant effects. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid on HG-induced oxidative damage in H9C2 cells. The effect of ellagic acid on the viability of cells was evaluated by the MTT method. The oxidative stress parameters, including levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also measured. The results indicated that ellagic acid (10 μM and 20 μM) could remarkably enhance the cell viability of H9C2 cells exposed to HG. In addition, ellagic acid significantly improved the levels of intracellular GSH, TAC, and SOD, whereas the levels of MDA were attenuated. These results revealed a protective effect of ellagic acid on HG-induced cytotoxicity, at least partially, by increasing antioxidant activity and preventing oxidative stress.
Key Words: H9C2 cells, high glucose, ellagic acid, cardiotoxicity, oxidative stress
Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Metronidazole Treatment On Carrageenan Induced Paw Edema in Mice
Inci KAZKAYASI*°, Gokcen TELLI**
*ORCID: 0000-0003-1159-9680, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Ankara, Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0003-0028-6769, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Ankara, Turkey
° Corresponding Author; Inci KAZKAYASI
Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole derivative antibiotic that has been used against protozoa and anaerobic organisms for a long time. Furthermore, it has been used in non-infectious inflammatory diseases such as acne, Crohn’s disease, periorificial dermatitis, rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis recently. However, the studies about this issue are very few and its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of our study is to evaluate the possible anti-inflammatory activity of metronidazole in vivo by using the mice- carrageenan-induced paw edema method. Mice were administered a single dose of 2, 20 or 200 mg/kg metronidazole via oral gavage. One hour later, 2% carrageenan was injected subplantar to the hind paws. The paw thickness of mice was measured just before the carrageenan injection and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 24 and 48 hours after injection by dial thickness gauge. For comparison, another group of mice received indomethacin (10 mg/kg, orally) used as a reference drug. IL-1β and TNF-α levels in the paws of mice were measured by the ELISA method. ANOVA (post-hoc Bonferroni) and Student’s t tests were used for statistical analysis. Metronidazole displayed equi-potent antiinflammatory activity with indomethacin in the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. It is shown that less edema occurred at all doses (2, 20 and 200 mg/kg) compared to the control group and no differences were obtained in effect between the doses. It was observed that in metronidazole treated groups, paw thickness returned to baseline values 48 hours after carrageenan injection, unlike the control group. IL-1β and TNF-α levels, which were increased with carrageenan injection, were significantly decreased with metronidazole treatment. In our study, metronidazole was found to be anti-inflammatory due to its effects on relieving edema and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines in the paws of carrageenan-induced mice. The effectiveness of metronidazole in treating various non-infectious diseases in recent years may be due to its antiinflammatory activity.
Key Words: Metronidazole, anti-inflammatory activity, mouse, paw-edema test
Design and Characterization of Fluconazole Loaded Elastic Liposome Based Gel for Treatment of Keratomycosis
Ravika NANDA*, Mehak**, Ramandeep Singh NARANG***, Jasjeet Kaur NARANG****°
* ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3676-3221, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, India
** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1673-6384, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, India
*** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2036-3883, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Sri Guru Ram Das Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Amritsar, India.
****° ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2265-7711, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, India
° Corresponding Author; Dr. Jasjeet kaur Narang
Tel. 7837221174, e-mail: email@example.com
Fungal corneal ulcers, also known as keratomycosis, occur due to a breach in the corneal epithelium. According to WHO, it is the leading cause of blindness. The eye consists of a variety of different structures having different physiological functions that make it highly resistant to external substances, thus resulting in low bioavailability of drugs from most of the conventional dosage forms. To improve drug effectiveness, a series of research groups have tried a variety of strategies. The majority of these modifications provide some benefit over traditional dosage forms, but they have their own set of drawbacks. To overcome the side effects of the formulations mentioned above, Fluconazole-loaded elastic liposome-based gel was prepared. The elastic liposomes were prepared by rotary evaporation method using soya lecithin and sodium deoxycholate. The elastic liposomal suspension was then incorporated into optimised gelling agent (carbopol 934) to have sufficient contact time of the drug in the eye. The elastic liposome-based gel was then characterized for pH, drug content, rheological study, homogeneity and grittiness, in vitro release study, ex vivo permeation study, toxicity study, bio adhesion study and antifungal activity. The optimized formulation had pH 7.0 ± 0.01, drug content 98.5 ± 3.9%, viscosity 7217 ± 340 mPa.s, in vitro release 80.5± 0.32%, ex vivo permeation 72.27±0.65 % and the bio adhesion time of the optimized formulation was found to be significantly higher (p≤ 0.05) as compared to marketed gel. Antifungal activity of the optimized gel was also found to be significantly higher (p≤ 0.05) as compared to the marketed gel. The Fluconazole-loaded elastic liposome gel was prepared successfully and was found to be a good choice over conventional gel formulation for the treatment of keratomycosis.
Key Words: Fungal corneal ulcers, Fluconazole, elastic liposomal gel, antifungal activity.
Potential Use of Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Leaf Extract to Recover Hepatic and Renal Damage in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Hesty SETİAWATİ*, Yulia Yusrini DJABİR**o, Hardi HARDİ***, Subehan LALLO****, Muhammad Husni CANGARA*****
**ORCID: 0000-0001-5705-4737, Hasanuddin University, Graduate Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Makassar, Indonesia
** ORCID:0000-002-5891-7247, Hasanuddin University, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Makassar, Indonesia
*** ORCID: 0000-003-0599-1854, Hasanuddin University, Graduate Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Makassar, Indonesia
**** ORCID 0000-003-1746-1682, Hasanuddin University, Department of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Makassar, Indonesia
***** ORCID: 0000-002-5160-8265, Hasanuddin University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomical Pathology, Makassar, Indonesia
° Corresponding Author; Yulia Yusrini DJABİR
The antihyperglycemic effect of breadfruit leaf (Artocarpus altilis) extract has been demonstrated in a preclinical study using an alloxaninduced diabetic model. This study aimed to examine whether breadfruit leaf extract also ameliorated liver and kidney injury in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats (n=35) were used in the study. All other animals except control group (group I, n=5) were injected with alloxan (155 mg/kg body weight). After 3 days, the hyperglycemic rats with blood glucose >200 mg/dl were divided into 4 treatment groups: placebo (alloxan group), Breadfruit Leaf (BL) extract 100 mg/kg, BL extract 200 mg/kg, and BL extract 400 mg/kg. Treatments were administered daily for 14 days, and blood samples were drawn at baseline, after alloxan injection, and following treatments to obtain serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and creatinine levels. Alloxan was found to cause a significant increase in rat blood glucose, SGPT, and creatinine levels three days post alloxan injection (P<0.01). After treatment, rats that received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg BL extracts had significantly lower SGPT
levels compared to those treated with placebo alone (P<0.05). Liver histological damage was also significantly alleviated, especially with the 400 mg/kg dose of BL extract. Although serum creatinine level was restored, alloxan-induced tubular degeneration in renal tissue was still evident. In conclusion, BL extract at a dose of 400 mg/ kg improved alloxan-induced liver dysfunction and tissue damage but was less effective at alleviating kidney damage. This result may support the use of breadfruit leaf extract as herbal drug with a hepatoprotective effect.
Key Words: Breadfruit leaf, Artocarpus altilis, diabetic rats, alloxan, liver damage, kidney damage
Competency of Lyophilization and Spray Drying Techniques to Improve the Solubility of Bosentan Monohydrate: A Comparative Study
Safvan Ali CHEMBAN*, Lakhvir KAUR**o, Gurjeet SINGH***,
Ravi Kumar DHAWAN**** Anureet KAUR***** and Lovepreet SINGH******
* ORCID: 0000-0001-7054-022X, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
** ORCID: 0000-0001-8091-2365, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-4399-4693, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-8587-6807, Department of Pharmacology, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-2158-9569, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
****** ORCID: 0000-0003-3217-9431, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
° Corresponding Author; Dr. Lakhvir Kaur
Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar
The present study focused on comparing the efficacy of two novel techniques, lyophilization and spray drying, which were proposed to overcome the solubility drawbacks of the highly effective antihypertensive drug, bosentan monohydrate. Solid dispersion approach is the most globally acknowledged and successful method for improving solubility. Poloxamer 188 was used as the carrier to prepare the solid dispersions. The results indicated that the particle size, solubility, and dissolution profiles of formulated amorphous systems varied significantly. Lyophilized solid dispersions demonstrated the highest level of solubility in the prepared solid dispersions. The solid dispersion formulations FL10 and FS10 prepared using lyophilization and spray drying techniques were optimized using
a 32 full factorial design approach. The resulting amorphous solid dispersions were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optimized solid dispersion (FL10) prepared via lyophilization had an average particle size of 450.9 nm in particle size analysis.
X-ray diffraction analyses of both FL10 and FS10 revealed a decrease in peak intensity compared to the drug and polymer, indicating the transformation of the crystalline form to amorphous. The outcomes of this study allow us to conclude that even though lyophilization and spray drying can be used to enhance solubility, lyophilization showed
Key Words: Solid dispersion, lyophilization, spray drying, solubility enhancement, hypertension
Modified Drug Release from SiO2/Polyhydroxybutyrate Composite Prepared Using Bamboo Leaf-Derived Silica
Enobong R. Essien*,°
* ORCID: 0000-0003-2379-3640, Department of Chemical and Food Sciences, Bells University of Technology, P.M.B 1015 Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria
° Corresponding Author; Enobong R. ESSIEN
Phone: +234-8139447446, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The ability of a controlled or modified drug delivery system to supply the drug in a sustained way and assure on-demand bioavailability makes it preferable to traditional drug administration. Due to the reliance on alkoxysilane silica precursors, the preparation of silica/polymer composite delivery material is costly. As a result, this study looked into using the bamboo leaf as a silica starting material. To evaluate in vitro degradability and modified-release in phosphatebuffered saline (PBS) solution, the ash from the bamboo leaf was mixed with polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) solution to make a (SiO2/PHB) composite, which was then loaded with the medication, tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). The shape, phase composition, and chemical bond characteristics of the materials were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. An ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer was used to determine the TCH release profile. The SiO2/PHB composite was found to have a successful drug loading ability. In addition to regulated degradability in PBS, the
composite exhibited a steady and sustained TCH release, with the degradation solution pH remaining below safe limits. As a result, the formulation of SiO2/PHB for continuous TCH delivery from bamboo leaf-derived silica suggests a significant potential economic benefit for a safe, regulated drug delivery method.
Key Words: Bamboo leaf, alkoxysilanes, composites, modified drug release, silica, tetracycline hydrochloride.
Conductor of the Astrocyte-Neuron Metabolic Orchestra
Menizibeya O. WELCOME*º
* ORCID: 0000-0001-5737-4626, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Nile University of Nigeria, Abuja
º Corresponding Author: Menizibeya O. Welcome MD, Ph.D, Chief,
Tel: +2347059151388; e-mail: email@example.com
Disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, Parkinson’s, and Alzheimer’s diseases are characterized by central metabolic dysfunctions and pose an enormous economic burden to public health. Annually, several millions of new cases and deaths are reported worldwide, thus substantiating the need to search for new frontiers in combating the growing prevalence and mortality of these diseases. Over the past few years, scientific evidence has consistently shown that the functional sweet taste receptor, T1R2+T1R3 heterodimer, serves to direct (conduct) peripheral glucose metabolism. Recent data have revealed that this heterodimer can also act as a central glucosensor that conducts cerebral glucose metabolism. Emerging reports have confirmed the central role of this receptor as a driver of glucose metabolism in neurons and astrocytes. In this paper, “metabolic orchestra” is used to depict the organizational complexity of the plasma membrane receptor-network involved in coordinating glucose transport and metabolism in the astrocyte-neuron circuitry. In light of recent works, suggesting that the taste receptor is a crucial central glucosensor and master coordinator of glucose metabolism, here, the T1R2+T1R3 heterodimer is referred to as the metabolic conductor of the astrocyte-neuron circuitry, responsible for a highly coordinated signaling of glucose molecules and multi-directional cross-talk with other plasma membrane receptors. This concept represents a shift on the astrocyte-neuron metabolic machinery from the GLUT- 2 mediated entry of glucose to a more coordinated one, involving multiple players at the plasma membrane. Research focusing on the treatments of brain disorders involving glucose metabolic dysfunctions is also discussed.
Key Words: T1R2+T1R3; cerebral sweet taste receptor antagonists; glucosensors; metabolic conductor; metabolic orchestra; cerebral diseases
Recent Advancements in Antipsoriatic Therapy: An Update
Shaik SHAFIULLA* , Suneela DHANESHWAR **, o
* ORCID: 0000-0002-6620-9558, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, U.P. India
** ORCID: 0000-0001-7646-642X, Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, U.P. India
º Corresponding Author: Suneela DHANESHWAR
Phone: +91 9850125430; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory, a multisystem autoimmune disease ith extreme pathological features and unsatisfied pharmacotherapeutic needs. Primarily psoriasis is associated with epidermal cells, keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammation, dermal capillary dilation, and proangiogenic mechanisms. Compared with other chronic diseases, patients with psoriasis have severe psychological stress and undergo reduced physical activeness, cognitive dysfunctions, and low-quality life. Pathophysiology is complex with the involvement of various mediators like interleukin- (IL)-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferongamma (IFN-γ), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that play a significant role in escalation and localizing the inflammation caused in psoriasis. However, acquiring uninterrupted knowledge of psoriasis pathophysiology allows us to identify the novel therapeutic targets that could be explored to overcome personalized psoriasis treatment challenges. Conventional therapy includes corticosteroids, vitamin-D, methotrexate, and cyclosporine, but with low efficacy and severe side effects and sometimes causing disease comorbidities. New biologics approved by FDA during 2016-2019, such as IL-23 blockers risankizumab-rza, guselkumab, and tildrakizumab-asmn, certolizumab pegol targeting TNF-α, IL-17 blockers brodalumab and ixekizumab have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis due to targeted approach but are reported to possess many side effects leading to low patient compliance. Biosimilars of adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab, designed by reverse engineering of biologics, are also becoming popular due to their cost-effectiveness. Drug repurposing focuses mainly on defining new medical uses for old drugs. The main focus of drug repurposing is how the drug molecule interacts with various targets and executes its pharmacological action, revealing the new possibilities of designing effective therapeutic agents with low toxicity.
Key Words: Psoriasis; Drug repurposing, Angiogenesis, Vascular
endothelial growth factor, Keratinocyte proliferation, TNF-α, IFN-γ,
Novel Glitazones Reverses Hyperglycemia In STZ Induced Hyperglycaemic Rat Model
Chandan HIRENALLURE MAHESHWARAPPA* , Krishna KAMSAGARA
LINGANNA**° , Prashanth Kumar BOMMENAHALLI REVANAPPA*** , Seema
MEHDI**** , Shreyas AYACHIT***** , Suman SUMAN****** , Nandini HITTANAHALLI
SHIVAKUMAR******* , Sneha DESAI******** , Swerna ESWARAN*********
* ORCID: 0000-0003-2395-2699, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
** ORCID: 0000-0001-7538-0798, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-9503-741X, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-3212-0774, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-7662-4413, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
****** ORCID: 0000-0003-0977-4953, Department of Dravyaguna, Govt. Ayurvedic Medical College & Hospital, New Sayyajiroa Raod, Mysuru-570001, Karnataka, India
******* ORCID: 0000-0003-0750-6373, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
******** ORCID: 0000-0001-7063-4728, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
********* ORCID: 0000-0003-1185-4442, Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Mysuru -570015, Karnataka India
° Corresponding Author; Krishna KAMSAGARA
Tel. +91 9886610010, Fax- 0821-2548359, e-Mail: email@example.com
Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic metabolic disorder characterized by reduced secretion of insulin or sensitivity to the insulin. It is also a disease of inadequate control of glucose levels in the blood plasma. The present study was formulated to assess the novel glitazones for hypoglycaemic activity in STZ induced rat model. Before in-vivo studies, thirty-two virtual compounds of novel glitazones were subjected to the molecular docking study. The docking
study showed that, the compounds C5 and C22 showed the better binding activity with the target protein 3CS8. The acute toxicity studies were done on female rats using OECD guideline 425. No mortality observed at 300 mg/kg per kg body weight and based on this result, the dose for in-vivo studies was chosen. The compounds C5 and C22 were evaluated for the hypoglycaemic activity at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight in STZ induced hyperglycaemic rats. The compound C5 at both the dose (10 mg and 20 mg/kg) showed the better activity than C22, where as C22 exhibited better activity at higher dose when tested. The activity was assessed by behavioural and biochemical parameters, on 0th ,7 th, 14 th and 21st day. The study duration was three weeks, on 21st day, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical estimations were done. The compound C5 showed significant activity when compared with C22. The current findings gives a lead for further research to prove the hypoglycaemic activity of novel glitazones at molecular level by employing some more research models.
Key Words: Molecular docking, PPARγ, glitazones, diabetes, 3CS8, lipid profile.
Development and Characterization of Nano-Sized Emulsion Systems Incorporated Polyphenolic Compound for Application Through the Skin
Bülent SAMANCI*o , Fatma Gülgün YENER** , İsmail Tuncer DEĞİM***
* ORCID: 0000-0002-7198-5375, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0002-7234-0034, Istanbul University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-9329-4698, Biruni University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Istanbul, Turkey
° Corresponding Author; Bülent Samancı
Tel. +90 412 241 10 00 / 7531; e.mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In addition to having strong anti-oxidant properties, resveratrol has anti-cancer, anti-angiogenic, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, antiviral, and neuroprotective activities. Despite its rapid absorption, first-pass effect and intestinal metabolism reduce the bioavailability of resveratrol. Moreover, the lipophilic property of resveratrol reduces its water solubility and metabolized in high incidence reduces its oral bioavailability. Therefore, it was aimed to develop an optimum formulation for the skin application of resveratrol to overcome the negatives after oral administration.Since their easy formulation, thermodynamically stable properties, and facilitating the delivery of both lipophilic and hydrophilic active ingredients, loading resveratrol to microemulsions (MEs) will be a suitable delivery system to overcome the drawback of stability problems and skin bioavailability of resveratrol. A Triangle phase diagram was constructed, and the MEs region was determined by points studies. Subsequently, some formulations were selected within the transparent region by considering characteristics required to achieve optimized transdermal drug delivery. Chosen formulations were exposed to pre-stability tests such as centrifuge and thermal stress tests. Characterization studies such as droplet size, size distribution, zeta potential, viscosity, pH measurement were performed on remained intact formulations after pre-stability tests. In terms of the characterization test results such as pH, viscosity, conductivity, there wasn’t found significant difference observed between formulations. However, polydispersity index and zeta potential values provided to choosing optimal formulation.
Key Words: Microemulsion, Penetration enhancers, Resveratrol, Transdermal Drug delivery, Triangle phase diagrams
Preparation, Optimization, and Evaluation of Pellets Containing Mesalamine With Natural Gums For Colon Drug Delivery System
Rijawan Rajjak PATHAN*° , Aquil-ur-Rahim SIDDIQUI **
* ORCID: 0000-0001-8706-0898, Department of Pharmaceutics, SBSPM’s B.Pharmacy College, Ambajogai, Beed, India;
** ORCID: 0000-0001-8989-6680, Department of Pharmacognosy, Shri Bhagwan College of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, India
° Corresponding Author; Rijawan Rajjak Pathan
Tel. +919881826372, email: email@example.com
The purpose of the present work was to formulate colon-targeted mesalamine pellets containing gums of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOG) and Cyamopsis tetragonolobus Taub. (CTG). Formulation of single stimuli mediated release is also difficult to target colon due to variation in the physiological condition, so in present work, pHdependent and enzyme degradation mechanisms are being used to release of drug at the colonic site. Extrusion and spheronization techniques were used for the preparation of pellets. For formulation optimization, factorial design study 32 was used for the selection of the optimized batch. It was found that high ratio of solvent 80:20 and 10% and 7.5% concentration of MOG and CTG respectively produce optimized pellets showed good physical properties and release for F8M and F8C and after coating it showed in vitro release at the colonic condition and in vivo roentgenographic images for targeting. As to say as advantages, spheronization and extrusion method was proved to have economized, whereas natural gums used to control release which added advantage as being as inert and biocompatible. This further formulation scope at industrial scales to reduce side effects of synthetic polymer and make it more biocompatible with the body.
Key Words: Mesalamine, pellets, Moringa oleifera gum, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus gum, in vivo colon targeting
Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Effect of Bisphenol A and Its Analogs in MCF-7 and HSeC Cell Lines in vitro
Seda İPEK*º , İrem İYİGÜNDOĞDU** , Aylin ÜSTÜNDAĞ*** , Yalçın DUYDU****
* ORCID: 0000-0002-3240-219X, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06560 Ankara
** ORCID: 0000-0001-9780-2488, Gazi University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06330 Ankara
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-8449-1358, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06560 Ankara
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-7482-086X, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 06560 Ankara
° Corresponding Author; Seda İPEK
Tel: 0 546 603 15 94; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogs have negative effects on human health. This research aims to determine the cytotoxic effects of BPA and its four different analogs bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol Z (BPZ), bisphenol AF (BPAF) on both cancer and healthy cell lines simultaneously by performing an MTT test. In this study, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and human Sertoli cells (HSeC) were used for cell culture.
MCF-7 and HSeC were exposed to BPA, BPS, BPF, BPZ, BPAF for 24 h. After that, the inhibitory effect of Bisphenols (IC50) was determined by measuring the absorbance. While BPF was the least cytotoxic alternative depending on the highest IC50 values in both cell lines, BPZ was found to be the most cytotoxic alternative in HSeC cell line. In the MCF-7 cell line, BPA and BPZ were found to have equally cytotoxic effects.
Key Words: Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, bisphenols, cytotoxicity, MTT, MCF-7 cell lines, HSeC cell lines
Effect of Solvent Polarity on Extraction Yield of Total Flavonoids with Special Emphasis to Glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra Roots
Sadanand YEWALE* , Zeba FARASH** , Shrikant KULKARNI*** , Shital PALGHADMAL**** , Neelam ATHAWALE***** , Laxman SAWANT****** , Shrinivas BHOPE******* , Sriram PADMANABHAN********°
* ORCID: 0000-0003-4613-3012, Herbal Division, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune, India.
** ORCID: 0000-0002-0225-910X, Analytical Development Laboratory, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune, India.
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-1981-5651, Analytical Development Laboratory, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune, India.
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-8998-3044, Herbal Division, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune, India.
***** ORCID: 0000-0003-1664-0443, Ayush Center of Excellence, Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, Center of Complementary and Integrative Health,
Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India.
****** ORCID: 0000-0002-3037-9168, Dabur Research and Development Center, Ghaziabad, India,
******* ORCID: 0000-0002-1723-8002, Analytical Development Laboratory, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune, India.
******** ORCID: 0000-0001-8049-3703, Sava Healthcare Limited, Research Center, Block D1, Plot No. 17/6, MIDC, Chinchwad, Pune-411019, India
° Corresponding Author; Dr. Sriram Padmanabhan
Phone: +91-20-68181222; e-mail: email@example.com
Different organic solvents (ethanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and acetone) were studied for their effects on the extraction efficiency of glabridin and total flavonoids (TF) from Glycyrrhiza glabra roots. The extract yield of Glycyrrhiza glabra roots was in the range of 3% to 6% following the extraction efficiency in the order ethanol>acetone>ethyl acetate>dichloromethane. A higher extraction yield of TF and glabridin was obtained with dichloromethane, followed by ethyl acetate, acetone and ethanol, indicating that the non-polar solvents help in optimal extraction of TF and glabridin. We also demonstrate for the first time, that the extraction efficiency of the flavonoids is not significantly affected by the use of the recovered solvents except in case of ethanol which reflects that the moistureabsorbing capacity of the solvent dictates the extraction efficiency of such compounds. The glycyrrhizin content in all the extract types was rather low (0.1 % to 1%) except for extract prepared with water, where the glycyrrhizin content was ~10% as expected since glycyrrhizin is a polar compound. Interestingly, we observed that ethyl acetate selectively isolated only glabridin with no traces of glycyrrhizin, which is a finding reported for the first time.
Key Words: Licorice, Glabridin, Flavonoids, Glycyrrhizin, Extraction, Solvent polarity
An Overview on Floating Drug Delivery Systems (FDDS); Conventional and New Approaches for Preparation and In Vitro –In Vivo Evaluation
Fatemeh SHARIAT RAZAVI* , Maryam KOUCHAK ** ° , Fatemeh FEIZOLESLAM*** , Maryam VEYSI ****
* ORCID: 0000-0002-5324-8267, Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
** ORCID: 0000-0002-1399-7335, Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-2558-9777, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
**** ORCID: 0000-0003-1358-6963, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
° Corresponding Author; Maryam Kouchak,
Tel: 00989163130204, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) are oral dosage forms that are able to float on the contents of the stomach and remain in the stomach for a long time. They offer an opportunity to prevail over the short gastric residence time of the usual dosage forms of the drug and play an important role in slowly delivering drug substances to the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract over a continuous period. Two methods have been proposed for the development of FDDS, including non-effervescent and effervescent systems. The present review briefly explains various technologies and their mechanism to design FDDS along with in vitro - in vivo tests for evaluation of them. In addition, new approaches to their preparation have been introduced.
Key Words: Floating drug delivery systems, Gastro retentive, Effervescent, Non-effervescent, Novel floating drug delivery systems.
Pharmaceutical Approaches for Low Solubility Agents and Solubility of Aprepitant
Hakan NAZLI* , Burcu MESUT** , Yıldız ÖZSOY***,°
* ORCID: 0000-0001-5763-1450, Trakya Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 22030, Merkez, Edirne, Türkiye
** ORCID: 0000-0003-2838-1688, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 34116, Beyazıt, İstanbul, Türkiye
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-9110-3704, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 34116, Beyazıt, İstanbul, Türkiye
º Corresponding Author: Yıldız ÖZSOY
Tel: +90 0212 440 00 00-13498; e-mail: email@example.com,
Advances in technology have broken new ground in the area of new active pharmaceutical ingredients discovery. Although the number of newly discovered active ingredients increases, only a few of them manage to survive for further development. Even if some of the discovered active ingredients have appropriate pharmacological activity, they are eliminated in the early stages of drug development due to their undesired physicochemical properties. Most of the time low
solubility leads to bioavailability problems. Increasing the solubility and hence bioavailability of an active pharmaceutical ingredient is an integral part of pharmaceutical technology and development. In the first part of this review, information about the methods that can be used to increase the solubility is given. In the second part, studies aiming to increase the solubility of aprepitant, a low-solubility active ingredient, are discussed.
Key Words: Solubility, Bioavailability, Solubility Enhancement Techniques, Particle Size Reduction, Solid Dispersions, Aprepitant
COVID-19: Mutated Strain, Treatment Options and Vaccine Development
Ayushi MAHAJAN* , Lakhvir KAUR**º , Gurjeet SINGH*** , RK DHAWAN**** , Anureet KAUR*****
* ORCID: 0000-0002-8666-4523, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
** ORCID: 0000-0001-8091-2365, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-4399-4693, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-8587-6807, Department of Pharmacology, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-2158-9569, Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, Punjab, India
º Corresponding Author: Dr. Lakhvir Kaur
The ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 is a significant threat to global health and the economy. This disease is a highly contagious pathogenic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The virus has a high reproduction rate, due to that it is highly transmittable and has turned into a catastrophe. Scientists and researchers worldwide are exaggerating every possible approach to limit the spread of this malicious disease. An abrupt rise has been reported in the number of cases due to newly mutated strains like SARS-CoV-2 VUI 2020/12/01. To date, no specific drug is effective in the complete eradication of this dangerous disease but, some broad-spectrum antivirals such as Remdesivir and Lopinavir are being used in the management of this ailment. Also, every possible effort has been made in the development of vaccines for preventing the outbreak of this deadly virus. The BNT162b2 by Pfizer and m-RNA-1273 by Moderna have been recently launched into the market, which have shown undesirable effects in geriatrics leading to mortality. In this review, we have tried to highlight important aspects of the COVID-19 that will aid in global awareness and will help the researchers to investigate possible ways to eradicate this menace and design new moieties for its effectual management.
Key Words: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Mutations, Spike protein, Pandemic, Vaccine.
Neuroprotective Therapy with Citicoline and Piracetam at Acute Cerebrovascular Disease: Clinical and Psychosomatic Effects
Iryna SOKOLOVA*° , Serafima TAZINA** , Oksana ZAKHAROVA***
* Orcid ID: 0000-0002-3102-2910, Department of Practical Psychology, Ukrainian Engineering and Pedagogical Academy, Kharkiv, Ukraine;
** Orcid ID: 0000-0003-3676-3467, Department of Therapy, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation;
*** Orcid ID: 0000-0003-0249-5257,Department of Organization and Economics of Pharmacy, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
° Corresponding Author; Iryna SOKOLOVA
Phone: +380503642304; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Contemporary pharmacological market is well developed, suggesting a wide choice of medical preparations for treating various disorders. Particular attention is paid to the group of diseases related to cerebrovascular accidents as the complications and consequences are often unfavorable. A study was conducted in the post-Soviet countries and aimed to determine the effect and efficacy of using neuroprotective drugs in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease,
taking into account the psychosomatic effect in patients. Two preparations were chosen for the study, namely, Citicolin and Piracetam. The main purpose was to compare the effectiveness and necessity of these drugs in improving the patients` condition and reducing the effects and mortality. The results of this study and works of other scientists proved a higher efficacy of using Citicolin compared to Piracetam. Among 680 patients (100%) receiving Citicolin as a neuroprotective therapy, 625 (91.9%) patients noted improvement in general condition already after three days. Of 405 patients (100%) receiving Piracetam, the regression of neurological symptoms occurred on the 4th or 5th day of treatment. The improvement of visual functions was noted in 26 patients from Citicolin group and only in 3 patients who received Piracetam as neuroprotective therapy.
Key Words: Ischemic stroke, citicoline, piracetam, neuroprotective therapy, psychosomatic effect
Molecular Investigation of Carbapenem and Colistin Resistance Mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Isolates
Neslihan GENİŞEL*° , Nida ÖZCAN** , Kadri GÜL*** , Nezahat AKPOLAT**** , Selahattin ATMACA***** , Levent KENAR****** , Nurten ALTANLAR******* , Tuba DAL********
* ORCID: 0000-0002-2579-1932, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0001-6898-7516, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-4642-0276, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-8653-6046, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-2730-5790, Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey
****** ORCID: 0000-0002-6613-1308, Department of Medical CBRN Defense, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey
******* ORCID: 0000-0003-2977-2269, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Ankara, Ankara, Turkey
******** ORCID: 0000-0002-4245-1534, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara,
° Corresponding Author; ; Neslihan GENİŞEL
Tel: +90 412 2411000 - 7545; e-mail : email@example.com
Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) infections are worrying health problems due to decreasing treatment options. This study investigates the carbapenemase (OXA-23,24, 48, 51, 55, 58, KPC, NDM-1, VIM, IMP) and mcr-1 genes of the CRKps isolates A total of 33 CRKp isolates isolated from patient blood samples from the Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, intensive care units (ICUs) between February 2020 and June 2020, were included in the study. The presence of carbapenemase encoding genes -including all CRKp isolates, bla OXA-23, 24, 48, 58, bla KPC, blaNDM-1, bla VIM, bla IMP- were investigated by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). CRKp isolates were
tested for mcr-1 gene and bla OXA-51, bla OXA-55 genes by monoplex PCR. All CRKp isolates studied with Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion Method (DDM) (100%) were resistant to ertapenem, 9 (27.27%) resistant to imipenem, and 23 (69.70%) were resistant to meropenem. 20 (60.61%) of the isolates were found resistant to colistin. bla OXA-48, bla NDM-1 and bla OXA-24 genes were found in 75.76% (n = 25), 6.06% (n = 2) and 3.03% (n = 1) isolates, respectively. Both bla OXA-48 and bla NDM-1 genes were detected in two (6.06%) isolates and mcr-1 gene in 16 (48.48%) isolates. While the mean hospitalization was 20.3 days in 13 patients with a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2
μg/ml, it was 33.9 days in 20 patients with a colistin MIC of > 2 μg/ml. The average length of stay in the hospital was 21.8 days in mcr-1 negative patients and 35.7 days in mcr-1 positive patients. Carbapenemase and mcr-1 positivities were found at dramatically high rates in Diyarbakır, Turkey. It was indicated that plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance in Kp isolates was problematic. Each hospital should monitor the colistin and carbapenem resistance mechanisms by molecular methods. Colistin resistance should be confirmed by the broth microdilution method (BMD).
Key Words: Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenemase, bla OXA-48, mcr-1, multiplex PCR, broth microdilution.
Association Between TP53 Gene Polymorphism and Obesity
Mehmethan CİHAN* , Hakan BULUŞ** ° , Onur DİRİCAN*** , Serpil OĞUZTÜZÜN**** , Doğan ÖZTÜRK***** , Abdulkadir ÜNSAL****** , Ahmet Oğuz ADA******* , Mümtaz İŞCAN********
* ORCID: 0000-0001-8701-754X, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
** ORCID: 0000-0001-7439-8099, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-0511-6611, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Science; Department of Biology, Kırıkkale/Turkey
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-5892-3735, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Science; Department of Biology, Kırıkkale/Turkey
***** ORCID: 0000-0003-1754-9246, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
****** ORCID: 0000-0002-7989-4232, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital, General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
******* ORCID: 0000-0001-9987-0572, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Toxicology; Ankara/Turkey.
******** ORCID: 0000-0001-5839-4987, Cyprus International University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lefkoşe, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
° Corresponding Author; Hakan BULUŞ
Tel.: +90-312 356 90 00 / 1158; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Obesity is a chronic disorder with increasing prevalence worldwide and occurs when energy intake is greater than energy expenditure. Obesity is one of the factors that cause oxidative stress and arises from an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the cell’s antioxidant defense system. Increasing ROS in obesity, influencing the hypothalamic neurons, affects hunger and satiety control, so correspondingly on body weight control. When ROS amount
increases, through DNA, protein and lipid oxidation, cell damage, necrosis, and apoptosis take place. Tumor protein p53, the guardian of the genome, is responsible for the regulation of genes involved in apoptosis as well as energy generating metabolic pathways. In our study, we investigated the TP53 (Arg72Pro) polymorphism in 151 patients diagnosed with obesity. TP53 mutation (rs1042522) was determined by real-time PCR. In 8 patients, the TP53 mutation was
identified as carrying heterozygous (Arg72Pro) and in 143 patients carrying homozygous (wild type) (Arg72Arg). No individual with a homozygous mutant (Pro72Pro) genotype was found in the studied group. Associations between TP53 genotypes and clinical obesity parameters such as body mass index, thyroid stimulating hormon, glucose, postprandial blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were compared statistically. According to the results of statistical
analysis, it was observed that TP53 polymorphism was associated with insulin level. Genotype frequencies were also compared with previous studies performed in control populations and found to be different. This study shows that there may be a relationship between TP53(Arg72Pro) polymorphism and obesity.
Key Words: Obesity, Oxidative stress, TP53, Polymorphism.
Serum Type Hyaluronic Acid Formulations: In vitro Characterization and Patch Test Study
Serdar TORT* , Alptug KARAKUCUK*,**,°
* ORCID: 0000-0003-4945-5420, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
** ORCID: 0000-0002-9061-2427, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ankara Medipol University, Ankara, Turkey
° Corresponding Author; Alptug KARAKUCUK
Phone: +90-533-6388331, e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Hyaluronic acid is a natural polymer that provides moisture to the skin and supports the skin’s elasticity by helping to keep it supple. Hyaluronic acid-containing serum, semi-solid and injectable formulations are available commercially. In this study, serum type formulations containing hyaluronic acid were prepared. The final formulation containing 1% hyaluronic acid was selected from the prepared formulations and stability tests, protective efficacy tests (ISO 11930), and in vivo allergic irritation tests of this formulation were performed. The pH of the 1% hyaluronic acid formulation was adjusted to 5.5. Microbial analysis using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida
albicans strains showed that the final formulation does not pose a contamination risk. In addition, it has been proven in the protective efficacy test of the final formulation that it has an antimicrobial effect of up to 28 days. According to the patch-shaped irritation test results in 15 subjects between the ages of 22-70, no allergic reaction was observed in the subjects for one week. No change was observed in the physicochemical properties of the final formulation at 25°C
65% relative humidity. In conclusion, the hyaluronic acid serum formulation has been evaluated as a product that can be used safely for moisturizing the skin.
Key Words: Hyaluronic acid, skin moisturizing, serum type formulation, in vivo allergy test, cosmetic product
Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Evaluation for Antimicrobial and Anthelmintic Activity of Novel Benzimidazole Substituted 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Schiff ’s Bases
Saravanan KALIYAPERUMAL* , Priyabrata PATTANAYAK**,°
* ORCID: 0000-0002-8859-8099, Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, 305004.
** ORCID: 0000-0003-4035-1182, Department of Pharmacy, Bhagwant University, Sikar Road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, 305004.
° Corresponding Author; Priyabrata Pattanayak
Phone: +91 9438269361, e-mail: Priyabrata2005@gmail.com
Benzimidazoles, 1,3,4-Thiadiazoles, and Schiff bases have shown many properties against different types of diseases, including bacterial infection and helminthiasis. Because of the need for new antimicrobial and anthelmintic agents, novel benzimidazole substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole Schiff’s bases were designed and synthesized. The synergy arising from the successful incorporation of benzimidazole ring, thiadiazole ring, and Schiff’s base in one pharmacophore was exploited in this work. Eleven such derivatives were synthesized and investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial and anthelmintic properties.1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carboxylic acid was first prepared by the oxidation of 2-methyl-1H-benzo[d]
imidazole with alkaline potassium permanganate. 1H-benzo[d] imidazole-2-carboxylic acid was then converted to N-arylidene-5- (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-amine by reacting with an aqueous solution of thiosemicarbazide in the presence of few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid. Finally, different benzimidazole substituted 1,3,4-thiadiazole Schiff’s bases were prepared by reacting thiadiazole substituted benzimidazole with
suitable aryl aldehyde. Compound PP-4 was found to be more potent than the standard drug in causing the death of nematodes, which took an average time of 13.22 and 19.00 min against Perionyx excavatus and Pheretima posthuma, respectively. Compounds PP-4, PP-6, and PP-8 containing electron-withdrawing groups (4-nitro, 2-bromo, 4-chloro) exhibited antimicrobial activity with the zone of inhibition ranging from 8-27 mm comparable to Ampicillin with
the value ranging from 22-27 mm for all the tested strains.
Key Words: Schiff base, Benzimidazole, 1,3,4-Thiadiazole, Anthelmintic activity, Helminthiasis, Antibacterial
Effect of Spathodea campanulata Ethanol Leaf Extract on Hematology and Liver Function of Salmonella-infected and Paracetamol-induced Swiss Albino Mice
Fred. Coolborn AKHARAIYI*° , Arthur Chinedu OKAFOR**
* ORCID: 0000-0001-5605-5543, Microbiology Department, Edo State University Uzairue, KM 7 Auchi-Abuja Road, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
** ORCID: 0000-0002-6819-4724, Microbiology Department, Edo State University Uzairue, KM 7 Auchi-Abuja Road, Iyamho, Edo State, Nigeria
° Corresponding Author; Fred. Coolborn AKHARAIYI
Phone: +234 8066982772, e-mail: email@example.com
Herbal remedies for healing is basically on the existing traditional methods, which is different from one tradition to the other. Liver performs useful functions that maintain health in humans but it can be affected to become malfunction if not guided or protected against some chemical substances contained in some foods, hard drugs and drinks. Effect on hematology and hepatoprotective activity of Spathodea campanulata ethanol leaf extract was studied using an animal model. Group I mice served as the positive control, group II mice as negative control, and groups III – XII mice as satellite groups which were treated with 200, 400, 800, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of extract after respective Salmonella typhi infection and paracetamol inducement. Overdose of mice with paracetamol caused changes in the mice’s physiology status. In hematology parameters of mice, red blood cell mean count was higher in the negative control (7.6±70.92 million/mm3) than the positive control (4.36±0.12 million/ mm3) and lower white blood cells mean count of 3.50±0.18 thousand/mm3 in the negative control than positive control with a value of 9.62±0.39 thousand/mm3. However, in biochemical evaluation, albumin (2.21±0.60 mg/dL) and bilirubin (2.11±0.63 mg/dL) were higher in the positive control than negative control with values of 4.90±0.11 and 1.08±0.10 mg/dL, respectively. These abnormalities in the mice’s physiological status were reversed on treatment with extract concentrations of 200 to 2000 mg/mL for five days. S. campanulata ethanol leaf extract can be used as traditional medicine for the treatment of liver diseases.
Key Words: Liver function, Spathodea campanulata, paracetamol, Salmonella typhi.
The Evaluation of The Use of Dependency Substances During Pregnancy
Ayçe ÇELİKER*º , Damla BOLAT**
* ORCID NO: 0000-0001-6753-6844, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100
** ORCID NO: 0000-0003-3824-3393, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology-Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100
º Corresponding Author: Ayçe ÇELİKER
Tel: 0312-305 21 33, Fax: 0312-305 20 39, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Substance dependency is an increasingly important problem throughout the world. Alcohol and cigarette addiction, as well as the use of narcotics and stimulants have increased very seriously. Individuals using these substances cause serious harm to themselves and their environment. The use of such substances during pregnancy adversely affects maternal health and the development of the fetus. Substance-dependent women do not get checked their examinations regularly during pregnancy and substance abuse can be realized at the final stage of the pregnancy. For this reason, health care personnel should be able to identify, guide and educate pregnant women who use drugs, especially focusing on those that abusers of drugs and other substances, so that the negative effects of the substance(s) on the mother, fetus and newborn can be minimized. In this study, the structures, general characteristics, metabolisms, and impacts on the fetus of illicit and abused substances in Turkey were compiled. Besides, the role of pharmacists in prevention and management of substance dependency was emphasized.
Key Words: Illegal substance, addiction, abuse, recreational, pregnancy, teratogenicity.
Use of Herbal Products in Lactation
Ayperi PAYAS* , Ayçe ÇELİKER**º
* ORCID NO: 0000-0002-6625-7947, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara,
** ORCID NO: 0000-0001-6753-6844, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara,
º Corresponding Author: Ayçe ÇELİKER
Phone: 0312-305 21 33, Fax: 0312-305 20 39, e-mail: email@example.com
Recently, usage of herbs and herbal products have gain popularity for several indications. The reason of the popularition of these products could be the thoughts of the people which natural products are much less harmful. With this point of view breastfeeding mothers are commonly using herbal products to raise their milk production (galactagogue) or treat post-natal diseases. But, there are big threats for both mother and baby in some issues such as the efficiency of herbal products, their toxicities, lack of scientific studies evaluating the effects on the baby, the large numbers of bioactive components and unavailability of convenient regulations. The aim of this review is to provide a guide about safety of popular herbal products commonly used by breastfeeding mothers and their effects on infants; to health care providers, such as pharmacists, who are the closest health advisors of patients, as well as physicians, and nurses and to ensure the careful use of herbal products in order to avoid undesirable effects by raising awareness that the word of “natural” is not synonymous with “safe”.
Key Words: Herb, herbal product, breastfeeding, lactation, galactagogue, safety.
Interactions between Warfarin and Herbal Products: Case reports, Preclinical and Clinical Studies
İçim GÖKKAYA* , Tuğba SUBAŞ** , Gülin RENDA***° , Ufuk ÖZGEN****
* ORCID: 0000-0003-0803-2886, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmakognozi ABD, Trabzon, TÜRKİYE
** ORCID: 0000-0002-0956-6567, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmakognozi ABD, Trabzon, TÜRKİYE
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-6323-0338, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmakognozi ABD, Trabzon, TÜRKİYE
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-9839-6717, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmakognozi ABD, Trabzon, TÜRKİYE
º Corresponding Author: Gülin RENDA
Phone: 04623778830 – 05323331133; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Plants have been used in the prevention and treatment of diseases since ancient times. Due to the popularity and unconscious use of herbal products, the risk of health problems is increasing day by day. Simultaneous use of herbal products especially with drugs having narrow therapeutic index can lead to very serious toxic effects. Warfarin, which is used to treat or prevent atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, artificial heart valve and myocardial infarction, acts as an anticoagulant by blocking the epoxide reductase enzyme and inhibiting the conversion of vitamin K and vitamin K epoxide. Warfarin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, has high bioavailability and reaches the maximum concentration in blood plasma after 90 minutes orally and is therefore widely used in the clinic. Warfarin has the potential to interact with many drugs, herbal products and foods, and it has been reported that it is the drug that causes the most frequent plant-drug interactions. In this study, case reports of warfarin-herb interaction in the literature were examined and the herb/herbal product used by the patient, drugs used by the patient other than warfarin, and the clinical symptoms related to the interaction were compiled. In addition, in vivo, in vitro, and clinical studies conducted on plants reported to be interacting in case reports were investigated, and the results obtained regarding the herbal products, dose, duration of use, study type, warfarin dose, and interaction mechanism were presented. Herbal products cause an interaction by inducing or inhibiting CPY2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP1A2 enzyme activities as well as P-glycoprotein, which play a role in warfarin metabolism. The responsibility of healthcare professionals and the importance of selling herbal products under the consultancy of healthcare personnel is emerging in preventing possible adverse drug reactions and toxic effects and ensuring rational drug use.
Key Words: Warfarin, drug-herb interactions, drug-food interactions, P-glycoprotein, rational drug use, herbal product.
Design of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Compounds and Anticancer Mechanisms of Action
Süreyya ÖLGENº* , Ahmet Mesut ŞENTÜRK**
* ORCID: 0000-0002-0725-8413, Biruni Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Kimya Anabilim Dalı, 10. Yıl Cad. No:45 Topkapı/ İSTANBUL
** ORCID: 0000-0001-6818-6161, Biruni Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi, Farmasötik Kimya Anabilim Dalı, 10. Yıl Cad. No:45 Topkapı/ İSTANBUL
º Corresponding Author: Süreyya Ölgen
Tel: 444 8 276, Fax: 90 212 416 46 46, e-mail: email@example.com
Cancer is a complex disease that is caused by uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells and under the influence of genetic and conditions. There are more than 100 types of cancers known and standardized therapies to certain types of cancers as much as possible have been developed. The DNA of any human on Earth is not alike. Therefore, patients provide different responses to similar treatments. Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are a family of enzymes involve the signal transduction in human cell. TKs are essential needs for normal human physiology. Destruction of normal functions cause abnormal cell activities, immunological, neurological, metabolic and infectious diseases, especially cancer. Among the kinases, Abelson Leukemia (Abl), sarcoma (Src), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) are primary molecular targets for selective inhibition and are considered the most successful targeted therapy for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Today, there are many Food and Drug Administration approved TKIs, which are frequently used in cancer treatment. In this review, the design strategies of the compounds as TKIs, the structure-protein interaction relationships, the functional role of the kinases targeted in the inhibitor design, the structural analysis of the binding modes of the kinase inhibitors, and the current developments in the therapeutic interventions of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been discussed.
Key Words: Cancer, inhibitor design, TKIs, structural analysis, selectivity, specifity.
Hydroxychloroquine: Similarity Search and Structure- Based Virtual Screening for Identification of Potential Hits for Chemoprophylaxis Against SARS-CoV-2
Shravan Kumar PASWAN°*† , Virendra NATH***† , Pritt VERMA** , Arun Pratap SIKARWAR**** , Sudhir K. VERMA*****
* ORCID: 0000-0002-2729-6257, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
** ORCID: 0000-0003-1433-2623, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-1367-7144, Central University of Rajasthan, Ajmer, India
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-5322-3951, Department of Zoology, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-7713-2250, Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India
† Equally contributed authors
° Corresponding Author; Shravan Kumar PASWAN
The current eruption of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrom causing coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an atrocious health tragedy. In this virulent disease, the computational approach appears to be the most hopeful choice to make out an efficient remedial medicinal agent for the treatment of an infected population. This current exploration inclined to analyze the similar druggable compounds as hydroxychloroquine to combat unworn coronavirus (COVID-19), using a pharmacoinformatics study. Docking-based virtual screening was carried-out using Glide, followed by Absorption Distribution Metabolism Excretion (ADME) anticipation. Hydroxychloroquine is being used as the criterion for comparison as it showed potential effect for symptomatic relief. Target-based virtual screening study divulged 28 top-ranked compounds based on their binding energy and dock score from 10695 PubChem compounds. In the additional weed-out process, 07 compounds were selected based on their similar interactions as hydroxychloroquine, comparable binding energy, and shape complementarity of the binding pocket of 6LU7. The
three-dimensional binding pose of screened 07 hits and their chemoessential features were successfully matched with reference compound. These candidates showed potential interactions with the amino acid residues of the active site of SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID 6LU7). Therefore, they may have the capability as lead compound(s) against COVID-19.
Key Words: Binding energy, COVID-19, Docking,Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2, Virtual Screening
Investigation of GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms in Obesity Patients Under Bariatric Surgery
Abdulkadir Ünsal* , Hakan Buluş** , Onur Dirican*** , Serpil Oğuztüzün**** , Doğan Öztürk***** , Mehmethan Cihan****** , Ahmet Oğuz Ada******* , Mümtaz İşcan********
* ORC ID: 0000-0002-7989-4232, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital; General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
** ORC ID: 0000-0001-7439-8099, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital; General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
*** ORC ID: 0000-0003-0511-6611, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Science; Department of Biology; Kırıkkale/Turkey
**** ORC ID: 0000-0002-5892-3735, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Science; Department of Biology; Kırıkkale/Turkey
***** ORC ID: 0000-0003-1754-9246, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital; General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
****** ORC ID: 0000-0001-8701-754X, University of Health Sciences; Keçiören Training and Research Hospital; General Surgery Department; Ankara/Turkey
******* ORC ID: 0000-0001-9987-0572, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Toxicology; Ankara/Turkey.
******** ORC ID: 0000-0001-5839-4987, Cyprus International University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lefkoşe, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
° Corresponding Author; Hakan BULUŞ
Tel.: +90-312 356 90 00 / 1158, e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
Obesity is a chronic disorder with increasing prevalence worldwide and occurs when energy intake is more than energy expenditure. Obesity is one of the factors that cause oxidative stress and arises from an imbalance between the reactive oxygen species ROS and the cell’s antioxidant defense system. Increasing ROS in obesity, influencing the hypothalamic neurons, affect hunger and satiety control, so correspondingly on body weight control. When ROS amount increases, through DNA, protein, and lipid oxidation, cell damage, necrosis, and apoptosis take place. Oxidative stress increment in adipose tissue causes the development of metabolic syndrome in obese people. Also, weight loss due to calorie restriction or exercise reduces oxidative stress. Mitochondria is the essential source for ROS formation. In the electron transfer system, reactive oxygen species forming due to oxidative phosphorylation reactions are involved in various physiological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genes encode enzymes that have oxidant-scavenging activities. Deletion polymorphisms in these genes cause the absence of their corresponding enzymes. In this study, we investigated the parameters associated with obesity such as body mass index (BMI), TSH, glucose, satiety blood glucose, triglyceride,
and cholesterol levels, and deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in 152 patients diagnosed with obesity in a Turkish population. No statistically significant relationship was found
between the parameters studied in obese patients and GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. More studies are needed to elucidate the relationship of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with obesity.
Key Words: Obesity, GSTM1, GSTT1, Oxidative stress, Polymorphism, Multiplex PCR.
Rice Bran Supplement Enhances GSH Levels in Testis and Liver of Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Rats
Dwirini Retno Gunarti* , Dewi Sukmawati** ° , Mochammad Kamal Nasser*** , Teuku Abdi Zil Ikram**** , Rizqi Nanda Pribawa***** , Dwi Anita Suryandari******
* ORCID ID: 0000-0002-1990-0098, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
** ORCID ID: 0000-0003-3777-8118, Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
*** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-9895-8019, Undergraduate student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
**** ORCID ID: 0000-0003-1109-4893, Undergraduate student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
***** ORCID ID: 0000-0002-0984-925X, Undergraduate student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
****** ORCID ID: 0000-0003-2711-8335,Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
° Corresponding Author; Dewi Sukmawati, MD., Ph.D.
Phone: +62 21 3146129, e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
In the present study, the potency of rice bran as an antioxidant was examined. Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process, despite being a rich nutrient, it has limitations in food application. In this study, we used carbon tetrachloride-induced rats (CCl4) as a model of oxidative stress and examined the effect of extract IPB 3S rice bran supplement (RBS) on testis and liver endogenous antioxidant. The testis and liver were used as the representative organs which prone to exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS). We used 150 and 300 mg.kg-1 Body weight (BW) of RBS. The Concentration of glutathione (GSH) in both organs was measured. All groups administered by RBS had significantly higher GSH levels compared to the CCl4 group, both in testis and liver. The dose of 300 mg.kg-1 BW RBS had a significantly higher GSH level in testis, while 150 mg.kg-1 VA RBS had a significantly higher GSH level in the liver tissue compared to the control group accordingly. Thus, the rice bran supplement enhances GSH levels in rat’s liver and testis which potentially has protective effects.
Key Words: Rice bran, IPB 3S, antioxidants, glutathione, CCl4, liver, testis.
Protective Effects of Ferulic Acid Against Isoniazid-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats
Ahmad AHMADIPOUR* , Fariba SHARIFIFAR** , Hussein ANANI*** , Somayyeh KARAMI-MOHAJERI****°
* ORCID: 0000-0001-7987-3872 Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
** ORCID: 0000-0003-1792-3760 Herbal and Traditional Medicines Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-4770-3008 Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-6256-6550 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran,
° Corresponding Author; Somayyeh KARAMI-MOHAJERI,
Tel: +98 34 31325239, Fax: +98 34 31325003, e-mail: email@example.com
Isoniazid (INH) is an antibiotic that is used for the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. The most common side effect of INH is seemingly hepatotoxicity through the induction of oxidative damage. Ferulic acid (FA) is an organic compound with antioxidant properties that is found abundantly in plant cell walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of FA against hepatotoxicity induced by INH in Wistar rats. The rats were injected with INH (100 mg/kg/d for 21 days) with and without co-administration of FA (10 and 20 mg/kg/d) or silymarin (100 mg/kg/d) from day 11 to day 21. Then, the animals were sacrificed to evaluate the serum levelof aminotransferases and total bilirubin, and liver histopathology and oxidative stress parameters. Co-administration of FA prevented the hepatotoxicity of INH according to the biochemical and histology findings. FA dose-dependently decreased level of lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in liver tissues of rats treated with FA were higher than those in non-treated INH-exposed rats. Taken together,
the results demonstrated that FA could be used as a hepatoprotective supplement to prevent INH-induced hepatotoxicity.
Key Words: Isoniazid, ferulic acid, hepatotoxicity, antioxidant, oxidative stress, histopathology.
Morphological Investigations on the Diagnostic Features of Six Hypericum Species of the Ukrainian Flora
Valentyna MINARCHENKO* , Oksana FUTORNA** , Vitalii PIDCHENKO***° , Iryna TYMCHENKO**** , Tetyana DVIRNA***** , Larysa MAKHYNIA******
* ORCID: 0000-0002-5049-7620, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 2 Tereshchenkivska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine;
O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University. 22 Pushkinska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
** ORCID: 0000-0002-3713-6644, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 2 Tereshchenkivska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-0850-6666, O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University. 22 Pushkinska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-7505-3164, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 2 Tereshchenkivska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-9279-9766, M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 2 Tereshchenkivska Str., Kyiv 01004,
Ukraine; O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University. 22 Pushkinska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
****** ORCID: 0000-0002-8095-4255, O.O. Bogomolets National Medical University. 22 Pushkinska Str., Kyiv 01004, Ukraine
° Corresponding Author: Vitalii Pidchenko
Phone: +380937670224; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The results of comparative analysis of the main diagnostic features of the medicinal raw material of six species of the genus Hypericum of Ukraine are presented. The most important diagnostic features of H. alpigenum Kit, H. elegans Steph. ex Willd., H. hirsutum L., H. maculatum Crantz, H. montanum L., and H. perforatum L. are the localization, form, and color of secretory structures. Characteristics of the basic morphological features of leaves, sepals, petals, and stems of the studied species are provided. It is emphasized that a comprehensive analysis of the species-specific peculiarities of the main raw organs of species of the genus Hypericum allows us to determine their species affiliation clearly. The use of these features makes it impossible to intentionally falsify or incorrectly identify the raw material of a particular species of St. John’s worth during merchandising analysis.
Diagnostic features, Hypericum, medicinal raw materials, leaves, sepals, petals, stems, secretory structures, Ukraine
Enhancing Skin Penetration: The Role of Microneedles
Bülent SAMANCI*º , Fatma Gülgün YENER** , İsmail Tuncer DEĞİM***
* ORCID: 0000-0002-7198-5375, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, Diyarbakir, Turkey,
** ORCID: 0000-0002-7234-0034, Proffesor, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-9329-4698, Proffesor, Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Biruni University, Istanbul, Turkey
º Corresponding Author: Bülent SAMANCI
Phone: +904122411000-7531; e-mail: email@example.com
Since transdermal delivery systems provide some important advantages over oral delivery systems and parenteral delivery systems, they have attracted the attention of researchers. Degradation of the drug in the gastrointestinal (GI) system, irritation of the GI system tract, and the first-pass effect of the drug are some of the disadvantages of oral administration, while the need for medical staff to administer it and creating phobia in the patient are among the disadvantages of parenteral administration. To overcome these drawbacks, researchers have developed formulations for the transdermal delivery of drugs. The most important handicap of transdermal drug administration is the Stratum Corneum layer (St. Corneum), which forms the enormous barrier layer of the skin. Some techniques have been developed to overcome this serious barrier problem of the skin. Microneedles are one of the physical methods to increase the penetration of therapeutic agents through the skin. Microneedles consist of needle arrays long enough to deliver the drug to the dermis layer and micron-sized enough to not reach the nerve cells and not cause pain. Microneedles can
be classified into five different types as solid microneedles, dissolving microneedles, hollow microneedles, coated microneedles, and hydrogel microneedles according to the properties of the materials used in the fabrication and the mechanisms of release of the therapeutic agent. Microneedles can be used in the application of vaccines, proteins, nucleotides, drug delivery systems, cosmetic, and for diagnostic purposes. Although important technological developments have been experienced for microneedle in many areas such as drug delivery systems, disease diagnosis, and cosmetics in the last two decades, there are many working areas that need to be developed. Especially in longterm treatments, studies should be done to develop them as smart devices.
Drug Delivery, Intradermal, Microfabricated device, Microneedle, Skin Penetration, Transdermal.
Therapeutic Applications of Radiopharmaceuticals: An Overview
Erol AKGUN*, Emre OZGENC**º , Evren GUNDOGDU***
** ORCID NO: 0000-0002-7586-8520, Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
*** ORCID NO: 0000-0003-2111-101X, Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey
º Corresponding Author: Emre ÖZGENÇ
Phone: 232 311 3282; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive medications (radioisotopes) and are composed of radionuclidic and pharmaceutical parts. Recently, the use of radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic and therapeutic agents is increasing. Several approaches have been employed to develop therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals have essential roles in nuclear medicine administrations. Today, various diseases such as thyroid cancer, metastatic bone cancer, neuroendocrine tumors, and myeloproliferative can be treated with radioimmunotherapy. These treatments provide convenience in multiple ways and can be advantageous compared to other treatment methods. In this review, current radiopharmaceuticals and their usage in different disease treatments are summarized by providing fine details. Also, the definition of theranostics is summed up. In conclusion, this review can be beneficial for scientists who work in this area.
Radiopharmaceutical, Treatment, Nuclear Medicine, Radionuclide, Radioimmunotherapy, Theranostics.
The Effects of Combination Therapy of Ionizing Radiation and Oncolytic Viruses
Meliha EKİNCİ* , Derya İLEM-ÖZDEMİR**º
* ORCID: 0000-0003-1319-3756, Ege Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, Radyofarmasi Anabilim Dalı, 35100 Bornova, İzmir, Türkiye.
** ORCID: 0000-0002-1062-498X, Ege Üniversitesi, Eczacılık Fakültesi, Radyofarmasi Anabilim Dalı, 35100 Bornova, İzmir, Türkiye.
º Corresponding Author: Derya İLEM-ÖZDEMİR
Tel: 232 311 3282; e-mail: email@example.com
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Treatment methods in cancer consist of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy. Ionizing radiation therapy, which deprives cancer cells of its ability to reproduce, remains an important component of cancer treatment, with about 50% of all cancer patients receiving radiation therapy during the disease, and contributes to 40% of curative treatment for cancer. Due to the side effects of these routine cancer treatments, the need for new therapeutic strategies has increased. With the development of oncolytic viruses in the last 20 years, a new area called virotherapy has been created in the treatment of cancer. Oncolytic viruses are a new biological therapeutic group with a wide spectrum of anticancer activity, with low human toxicity. Studies have shown that oncolytic viruses, which can be designed to selectively infect and / or multiply in cancer cells, have an increased antitumoral effect on tumor xenografts combined with ionizing radiation. In this review, treatment methods with ionizing radiation and oncolytic viruses are described and examples from current studies are presented.
Ionizing radiation, oncolytic virus, cancer, therapy, virotherapy, xenografts.
Printers and Printing Technologies in the Pharmaceutical Field
Ece ÇOBANOĞLU* , Cem VARAN** , Erem BİLENSOY***º
* ORCID: 0000-0002-4804-7495, Mersin Üniversitesi, Farmasötik Biyoteknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 33169 – Mersin
** ORCID: 0000-0002-9391-8691, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 06100 - Ankara
*** ORCID: 0000-0003-3911-6388, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Farmasötik Teknoloji Anabilim Dalı, 06100 - Ankara
º Corresponding Author: Erem Bilensoy
Tel: 0312 305 43 69; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Currently, the importance of personalized medicine and the widespread use of 3D production techniques in almost all industrial fields, pave the way for the preparation of personalized and customizable pharmaceutical dosage forms with 3D printers. New 3D production techniques are developed and their applicability to the pharmaceutical industry is being investigated day by day. This review is aimed to evaluate printing technologies, which will play an important role in future pharmaceutical manufacturing along with a detailed review of publications about 2D and 3D printing techniques. Within the scope of the review, printing techniques were compared with each other from a pharmaceutical and biomedical perspective, and possible predictions about how an ideal production method were discussed by revealing the possible advantages and disadvantages of these innovative techniques.
2D Printer, 3D Printer, Drug, Personalized Medicine, Pharmaceutics, Printing Technology
Bioactivities of A Major Compound from Arthrinium rasikravindrae An Endophytic Fungus of Coleus amboinicus Lour.
Puji ASTUTI°* , Dwi Koko PRATOKO** , Rollando ROLLANDO*** , Giri Wisnu NUGROHO**** , Subagus WAHYUONO***** , Triana HERTIANI****** , Arief NURROCHMAD*******
* ORCID: 0000-0003-3316-6149, Pharmaceutical Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
** ORCID: 0000-0001-7262-4515, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Jember, Jember, Indonesia
*** ORCID: 0000-0001-6210-6247, Program of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ma Chung University, Malang, Indonesia
**** ORCID: 0000-0001-9086-3181, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-1374-4506, Pharmaceutical Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
****** ORCID: 0000-0002-1756-2478, Pharmaceutical Biology Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
******* ORCID: 0000-0001-7597-2574, Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
°Corresponding author: Puji Astuti
Phone/Fax: +62-274-543120; e-mail: email@example.com
Many studies reported the ability of endophytic fungi to produce various bioactive compounds having therapeutic values. An endophytic fungus identified as Arthrinium rasikravindrae was isolated from the stem of Coleus amboinicus Lour. This study examined cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of a major compound isolated from ethyl acetate extract of the fungus fermentation broth. Cytotoxic activities were conducted using MTT assay against T47D, MCF-7, WiDr, 3T3, and Vero cells. IC50 values against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were used as the parameters for determining antimicrobial activities. The isolated compound appeared as a single peak in HPLC chromatogram (98.55 %), displayed the highest cytotoxic activity on WiDr cells (IC50 35.03 ± 2.08 μg/mL) and antimicrobial activities against S. aureus (IC50 232.10 ± 1.20 μg/mL) and E. coli (243.59 ± 1.32 μg/mL). Analysis of the UV spectrum and TLC data generated by various detection reagents revealed that the compound was predicted as an N-containing substance having conjugated double bonds.
Coleus amboinicus Lour., cytotoxicity, antimicrobial, Arthrinium rasikravindrae, endophyte, fungus.
Effects of Pycnogenol and Its Combinations with Cisplatin on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Viability
Merve BECİT*,° , Sevtap AYDIN DİLSİZ** , and Nurşen BAŞARAN***
* ORCİD: 0000-0002-8084-4419, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ataturk University, Erzurum, 25240, TURKEY
** ORCİD: 0000-0002-6368-2745, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100, TURKEY
*** ORCİD: 0000-0001-8581-8933, Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, 06100, TURKEY
° Corresponding Author: Merve BECİT
Phone: +904422315241; Fax: +904422315201; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Many challenges of hepatocellular carcinoma treatment, such as side effects and drug resistance, still remain. Therefore, new improvements with high pharmaceutical function and low toxicity
are needed. Recently, the efficacy of the combination therapy of antineoplastic drugs with natural products like pycnogenol has garnered attention. Pycnogenol® is a standardized extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster and consists of phenolic compounds. Pycnogenol is considered complementary in the treatments of some cancer besides its good tolerability and high safety. This study aims to reveal the synergistic effects of pycnogenol combination with cisplatin and its relation to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell viability. Effects of single and combined treatment on cell viability were evaluated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and HepG2 cells using MTT assay. In HepG2 cells, this combined treatment showed a more cytotoxic effect than singledose
groups. Pycnogenol increased the cytotoxicity of cisplatin at 500 μM for 24 h; at 250-500 μM for 48 h in V79 cells; and also, at 125-500 μM for 24 h; at 62.5-500 μM for 48 h in HepG2 cells (p<0.05). Our study is the first study to show that pycnogenol treatment with cisplatin has been combined in the HepG2 cell line. As a result, pycnogenol induced cisplatin cytotoxicity via combined treatment on HepG2 cells and exhibited a synergistic effect with cisplatin. In conclusion, pycnogenol may play a role in the chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma; however, further
studies are required to confirm their interactions with cisplatin.
Pycnogenol, cisplatin, MTT, cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells.
Improvement in Aqueous Solubility of Cilnidipine by Amorphous Solid Dispersion, Its Formulation into Interpenetrating Polymer Network Microparticles and Optimization by Box-Behnken Design
Amit KUHIKAR* , Shagufta KHAN**° , Komal KHARABE*** ,
Dilesh SINGHAVI**** , Girish DAHIKAR*****
* ORCID: 0000-0001-7353-9814, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
** ORCID:0000-0002-2827-7939, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
*** ORCID: 0000-0002-5237-6929, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
**** ORCID: 0000-0002-2544-7226, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
***** ORCID: 0000-0002-2284-535X, Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Borgaon (Meghe) Wardha, Maharashtra, India.
°Corresponding Author: Shagufta Khan, Professor,
Phone: (+91)7152-240284, Fax (+91)7152-241684; e-mail: email@example.com
Cilnidipine(CPN), a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class II drug, has dissolution rate-limited bioavailability and a very short half-life (20.4 min). Thus, there is a need to improve the solubility and prolong the drug release so that the therapeutic concentration of CPN could be maintained for a prolonged time. Therefore, the present investigation was aimed to improve the solubility of CPN by preparing amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) and sustain its release by incorporating CPN loaded ASD (CPNASD) in interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) microparticles. ASD was prepared using Solutol HS 15 and Gelucire®50/13. Solutol HS 15 provided a better effect by increasing 84.09 folds solubility of CPNASD in water as compared to the free CPN, therefore it was used in the formulation of IPN microparticles. Characterization of ASD by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed a decrease in the crystallinity
of CPN. IPN microparticles loaded with CPNASD were prepared by varying chitosan concentrations, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and massratio of chitosan:TPP and optimized by Box-Behnken Design. The constraints on the responses were maximum drug entrapment efficiency and sustained drug release with more than 80% drug release in 12 h. IPN microparticles with composition, chitosan 50mg, PVA 74.99mg (Volume of aqueous phase; 10 ml, Volume of organic phase; 50 ml) and chitosan:TPP 2.52 was the predicted optimized condition by the software and IPN with this composition provided high % entrapment efficiency (83.87±0.85) and sustained release (83.29±0.55) for 12 h. Solutol HS 15 was successful in providing a massive increase in solubility of CPN, and a uniform sustained release was achieved by loading CPNASD in IPN microparticles.
Cilnidipine, Solid dispersion, Solutol HS 15, Interpenetrating polymer network microparticles, Chitosan, Polyvinyl alcohol.